Solar power is harnessed using Solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology that converts sunlight (Solar radiation) into electricity by using semiconductors.
When the sun hits the semiconductor within the PV cell, electrons are freed and bus bars collect the running electrons which results in electric current. When we place Solar panels connected in a calculated manner in the sunlight, they start producing current and voltage in the form of Direct current (DC) but in most of the countries in the world appliances and equipment runs on Alternative current (AC) so we need to connect to all Solar panels to an Inverter which then converts DC into AC for home use.
1:On-grid Solar Power System / Grid interactive System
> This type of system is used when you want to reduce your electricity bill > In this type of system you will save the per unit amount multiplied by units generated by Solar system (known as net metering, involves govt. approvals) > When your house’s electricity consumption is low and solar generation is high your Solar system will feed the excess energy into the grid/electricity company. > When your electricity consumption is high and solar generation is low your Solar system will take the excess energy from the grid/electricity company and feed into your home.
<2: Off-grid Solar Power System / Standalone System
This system is used when electricity/grid is not present or someone required backup to safeguard against power cuts. Also, in some cases, if someone wants to generate his own green energy! (No govt. involvement is required in this case) > This is a battery based system, so energy generated from the solar panel is stored in the batteries which are connected with this system > You can operate some of essential equipment/appliances directly on this system at the time of grid unavailability of no sunlight hours as well
3: Hybrid Solar Power System >
> This one is the combination of off-grid and on-grid solar system. > If the electricity consumption of your house is lower than the energy generated from Solar system, excess energy will get stored in batteries connected with this system. > If the house electricity consumption is greater than Solar energy generation excess requirement will be catered through batteries. >If the house electricity consumption is lower than the energy generated through Solar panels and batteries are fully charged than the excess energy generated goes into the grid/electricity dept.